Latest and Important Topics for MRCS Exams

Latest and Important Topics for MRCS Exams

Topic 1: Adipose necrosis and Distinction from Breast Cancer

Adipose necrosis can mimic breast cancer in its clinical and mammographic presentation

Adipose Necrosis or Fat Necrosis can follow breast operations as is in this case of reduction Mammoplasty . Adipose necrosis can mimic breast cancer in its clinical and mammographic presentation. Fat necrosis is uncommon due to Physical trauma or Ischemia resulting from stretching and narrowing of arteries in pendulous breasts may be a factor.

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Topic 2: Mucosal Neuromas are associated mostly with which ………Thyroid Cancer

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid may occur sporadically or in a familial pattern. In its familial form, it is associated with Marfan-like habitus, mucosal neuromas, and Multiple endocrine neoplasias (pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism).

Topic 3: Immediate Needle Thoracotomy is life saving in which ……Clinical Condition

Tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening condition. It can cause severe and immediate cardiopulmonary collapse. Immediate needle thoracotomy to decompress the pleural cavity is needed and is life saving.

Topic4: Hamanns Sign is seen in………………………Oesophageal perforation

Oesophageal perforation causes severe thoracic pain , followed by fever , dysphasia , mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema and ultimately dyspnoea and systemic sepsis. Shock and emphysemas are more frequent after perforation of the thoracic Oesophagus then after perforation of the cervical Oesophagus. Emphysema around pericardium may produce mediastinal crunch called a Hamanns Sign. Chest radiography and Gastrografin swallow study, (followed by barium study if the gastrografin swallow is negative) is diagnostic in most cases.

Topic 5: Oliguria, Chest Pain with Dyspnea may be seen along with petechiae on chest in………..Which Type of Embolism

Fat Embolism can cause Cholesterol emboli to dislodge into virtually any like skin, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system Fat Embolism can cause Cholesterol emboli to dislodge into virtually any like skin, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system. Lipiduria or Oliguria, Blackish discoloration of his toes and Chest Pain with Dyspnea may be seen along with petechiae on chest.

Topic 6: Glomus tympanicum arise in the ……………..Middle ear

They arise from neural crest. They present clinically with pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss. A vascular mass may be visible behind an intact tympanic membrane. Most common site in middle ear is Hypotympanum.

Topic 7: Torsion of the testicle should be corrected ………As soon as possible.

Torsion of the testicle should be corrected as soon as possible after the diagnosis is entertained.The opposite scrotum should also be explored at the time of the operation, since the primary anatomic defect is most often a bilateral phenomenon. The differential diagnosis of acute scrotal pain includes testicular torsion. The blood supply to the testicle is compromised due to twisting of the spermatic cord within the tunica vaginalis resulting in ischemia to the epididymis and the testis.

Topic 8: Splenic flexure syndrome is characterized by pain and abdominal distention in the ……………….Left upper quadrant of the abdomen

It is characterized by recurrent pain and abdominal distention in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It is caused by a pocket of gas trapped in the large intestine below the spleen at the splenic flexure of colon.

Topic 9: Trigger Finger is due to inflammation of …………..the Superficial and Deep flexor tendons over the metacarpal head

It is due to localized inflammation of a tendon and its enveloping synovial sheath (Tenosynovitis) of the superficial and deep flexor tendons over the metacarpal head.”

There is thickening and narrowing of the sheath, and a nodular enlargement develops in the tendons distal to the pulley.

Topic 10: “MRI” is the best Investigation to arrive at the Diagnosis of Fracture NOF. (Fracture Neck of Femur)

Fracture Neck of Femur can cause avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Early diagnosis is needed to make a decision about Further Plan of Action. MRI is the best to arrive at the Diagnosis and to plan after confirmation of the diagnosis.