Latest and Important Topics for NEET DM Superspeciality Exams

Below is the List for Latest and Important Topics for NEET DM Superspeciality Exams:

Topic 1 : Tissue transglutimanase would be seen to generate antigenic epitopes in alpha gliadin in Celiac disease.

Celiac disease is a common immune mediated disease common with HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8 Positivity. Here IgA antibodies are also found against reticulin which is found in the submucosal layer of the jejunum. There is Presence of Antigliadin antibodies, Antireticulin antibodies, Anti transglutaminase antibodies and Anti endomysial antibodies.

Tissue transglutimanase would be seen to generate antigenic epitopes in alpha gliadin in Celiac sprue.

Topic 2: C282Y Mutations in HFE gene are detected in patients with which Disease ……………….Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis is most often caused by inheritance of a mutant HFE gene, which is tightly linked to the HLA-A locus on chromosome 6p. Homozygous C282Y Mutations in HFE gene are detected in many patients with the Hereditary Form of Disease. It is a common disorder of iron storage, in which an appropriate increase in intestinal iron absorption. It results in deposition of excessive amounts of iron in parenchymal cells with eventual tissue damage and impaired function of organs, especially the liver, pancreas, heart, joints, and pituitary.

Topic 3: Vitamin B12 bound to IF is absorbed by…………….. ileal mucosa.

Vitamin B 12 deficiency is an important cause of Megaloblastosis and develops in the vast majority of cases as a result of impaired vitamin B12 absorption. Dietary vitamin B12 is bound to intrinsic factor (IF) secreted by the stomach and vitamin B12 bound to IF is absorbed by ileal mucosa.

Topic 4: Beta 2-microglobulin is produced by ………………….B cells

It is a Protein produced by B-cells; high concentrations in the blood are indicative of multiple myeloma.

Beta-2-Microglobulin is found in the serum of normal individuals and in the urine in elevated amounts in patients with Wilson disease, cadmium poisoning, and other conditions leading to renal tubular dysfunction .

Topic 5: Raised Arginase 1 Levels are seen in Patients with ……….. which Cancer.

Hepatitis C can lead to development of Hepatocellular Cancer. Raised Arginase 1 Levels are seen in Patients with Hepatocellular Cancer.

Topic 6: Hemangioblastomas are seen in association with …………….Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

Hemangioblastoma is a vascular tumor of unknown histologic origin that frequently develops in the cerebellum of patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Renal cell carcinomas are also common in this disease. Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is caused by autosomal dominant mutations of the VHL gene, a tumor suppressor gene.

Topic 7: Perihilar egg -shell calcifications in a glass worker with Progressive Fibrosis of lungs would indicate……………………..which Respiratory Ailment

Silicosis results from inhalation of organic dust of silica. It is common in Miners, Glass workers and Stone workers. Patients usually have a progressive fibrosis of the lung that leads to increasing dyspnea and cough. Silicosis is associated with superinfection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lymph nodes (hilar nodes) show calcifications. Chest radiographic shows nodules, fibrosis and Perihilar egg -shell calcifications

Topic 8: Tacrolimus I acts on cytosolic protein………………………… FKBP

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppresant inhibits T-cell activation by binding to a cytosolic protein FKBP and associates with calcineurin and inhibits the serine/threonine phosphatase activity of this Ca2+-dependent enzyme, thus inhibiting calcineurin-dependent activation of lymphokine expression, apoptosis, and degranulation.

Topic 9: Drug acting on Ala-D Ala of cell Wall is………………Pencillin

Penicillin’s inhibit bacterial growth by interfering with the bacterial cell

wall synthesis and not Cell Membrane. Penicillin’s work by inhibiting transpeptidase, the enzyme that catalyzes the final crosslinking step in peptidoglycan cell wall formation. Penicillins are structural analogs of D-Ala-D-Ala.

Topic 10: A 44 Year old male has been having abdominal cramps and intractable diarrhea. Echo Demonstrates pulmonary valve stenosis. Most Likely Implicated Substance is ………………5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid

Carcinoid disease primarily involves the right side (although left side lesions may also occur. Most patients with cardiac lesion develop heart failure. The Predominant valvular lesion due to involvement of pulmonary valve is pulmonic stenosis. There is severe involvement of endocardium by dense fibrous deposits. Main secretary product of tumor cells of Carcinoid syndrome is 5HT (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) which is responsible for diarrhea and wheezing.

Topic 11: Scaly Eruption, Oncholysis and Extensor Involvement with Arthritis is seen in ……….. Psoroasis

  • In Psoriasis Scaly rash on Extensors is common and Nail involvement is common and may show:
  • Small regularly placed thimble pitting
  • Onycholysis – separation of nail plate from nail bed.
  • Nail plate thickening & tunneling
  • Accumulation of subungal friable debris / subungal hyperkeratosis.
  • Severe Arthritis may be associated.

Topic 12: In Freidrechs Ataxia unstable mutation is seen on on chromosome…….13.

Freidrechs Ataxia : Findings can be

  • Cardiopathy
  • Dysarthria
  • Pes Cavus
  • Nystagmus

Examination reveals nystagmus,dysarthria, dysmetria, and ataxia of extremity and truncal movements. It is Caused by an unstable mutation on chromosomal 13.

Topic 13: Most Favoured site of Intracranial aneurysms is Anterior Circulation at Circle of Willis

Intracranial aneurysm saccular aneurysms occur at the bifurcations of the large arteries at the base of the brain; approximately 85% of aneurysms occur in the anterior circulation, mostly on the Circle of willis.

Topic 14: The Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is a Tumor suppressor gene on ……………chromosome 3p.

This syndrome consists of retinal, cerebellar, and spinal hemangioblastomas, which are slowly growing cystic tumors. Hypernephroma, renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and cysts of the kidneys, pancreas, epididymis, or liver may also occur. The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p .

Topic 15: Myoglobin is the Earliest Marker to Rise in Acute MI

Myoglobin is released into the blood within only a few hours of the onset of AMI. Although myoglobin is one of the first serum cardiac markers that rises above the normal range after AMI, it lacks cardiac specificity, and it is rapidly excreted in the urine, so that blood levels return to the normal range within 24 hours of the onset of infarction.