The Medical Council of India (MCI) will conduct National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test (NEET) for medical PG courses – MD/MS/Diploma (NEET-PG) for admission to medical post-graduate courses across the country.
Only a medico knows how tough it is to prepare for NEET PG Medical Entrance Exam and get a seat of choice. Candidates have to put in hard efforts and appear for the exam with a strategy, they have to plan studies meticulously. How if you get a mentor who helps you throughout your preparation!!
To help students with the trendy topics for NEET PG 2018, here in this article we will keep updating the Latest and Important Topics for NEET PG 2017-2018 for the students to get prepared well for their entrance.
Recently Asked Hot Topics for NEET PG 2018
Topic 1: HLA DR4 association with Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM]
Type I (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM]
Affects young, lean individuals.
Caused by a reduction in β cell mass.
Autoantibodies are present in Blood against islet cells
HLA DR3/DR4 are expressed In most patients
Topic 2: In CAH There is………. diminished cortisol biosynthesis, ACTH is increased
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia is due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency . It is the most frequent cause of sexual ambiguity .There is diminished cortisol biosynthesis, ACTH is increased. ACTH leads to enhanced intermediate compounds before the enzymatic defect.
Topic 3: Acral lentiginous melanoma is common on the palms and soles
Acral lentiginous melanoma occurs on the palms, soles, and digits. It evolves as an irregular, enlarging, variegate-colored, brown to black growth similar to lentigo maligna melanoma but more aggressive in dermal invasion early in its course.
Topic 4: Bouchard’s nodes are enlarged proximal interphalangeal PIP joints
In the hand, Heberden’s nodes (enlarged distal interphalangeal [DIP] joints) and Bouchard’s nodes (enlarged proximal interphalangeal [PIP] joints) may form in OsteoArthritis .
Topic 5: Subdural hematoma is due to …….Tearing of bridging veins
Subdural hematoma collection of blood in the subdural space secondary to severe trauma. Bleeding is due to tearing of bridging veins between cortex and venous sinuses
Topic 6: Bernard Soulier syndrome is characterized by ……….giant platelets.
Bernard Soulier syndrome is a bleeding disorder characterized by
thrombocytopenia, giant platelets, and a bleeding tendency .
Topic 7: Intrinsic factor is a …………………..Glycoprotein
Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein, produced by parietal cells of the stomach. They are essential for proper absorption of Vitamin B12 from diet.
Topic 8: Insulin is derived from ……………a single-chain proinsulin polypeptide precursor
Insulin is derived from a single-chain proinsulin polypeptide precursor. Within the pancreatic β-cell, newly synthesized proinsulin is deposited in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported within membrane-enclosed organelles to the sacs of the Golgi apparatus
Topic 9: Filariasis is transmitted through Culex fatigans
Filariasis is caused by the nematode worm Filaria Sanguinis hominis which is transmitted by a mosquito (Culex fatigans).
Topic 10: Greatly Increased alkaline phosphatase levels are seen in Pagets Disease of Bone.
In Paget’s disease of the bone there may be bone pain, enlarged Bone Size , increased alkaline phosphatase levels are seen.
Latest Hot Topics for NEET PG 2018
Topic 1: Investigation of Choice for evaluation of Acute Head Injury is NCCT
“NCCT is Non contrast CT Scan of head. It is an extremely useful , rapid and universally accepted modality of evaluating the head injury in acute cases.”
Topic 2: Hirschsprung disease
Hirschsprung disease should be suspected in any full-term infant (the disease is unusual in preterm infants) with delayed passage of stool. Some infants will pass meconium normally but subsequently present with a history of chronic constipation.
Topic 3: Vitamin D resistant rickets is X-linked dominant
The most commonly encountered non-nutritional form of rickets is familial hypophosphatemia or vitamin D resistant rickets . The usual mode of inheritance is X-linked dominant, Autosomal recessive and sporadic forms have also been reported.
Topic 4 : Heberden’s nodes are seen in OA
In the hand, Heberden’s nodes (enlarged distal interphalangeal [DIP] joints) and Bouchard’s nodes (enlarged proximal interphalangeal [PIP] joints) may form in OsteoArthritis .
Topic 5 : Genetic Infantile Agranulocytosis is………… Kostmann’s disease.
Kostmann’s disease. This is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by severe neutropenia at birth and frequent bacterial infections
Topic 6: Tyrosinosis is characterised by deficiency of ……………………………..
Tyrosinosis is characterised by Fumaryl hydrolase deficiency. Tyrosine and Methionine level in plasma are elevated.
Topic 7: Zellweger Syndrome:
It is An autosomal recessive disease ( also called cerebrohepatorenal syndrome. Peroxisomes are virtually absent, as are normal peroxisomal functions, which include the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids.
Topic 8: Ranibizumab is used in Opthomology for ……..
Ranibizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment (fab). It is the only FDA approved non-selective anti-VEGF agent for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization
Topic 9: Eales disease is………..
The eponym ‘eales disease’ is used to describe patients with bilateral, idiopathic, occlusive, peripheral periphlebitis and neovascularization.
Topic 10: Lemon sign is seen as a feature of ………. Spina Bifida
Lemon sign – Flattening of frontal bones on transverse image. It is seen in Spina Bifida
NEET PG 2018: Latest and Important Topics for NEET PG 2017-2018
Topic 1: Monoclonal Antibodies and their Target
- Belimumab : BLyS
- Bevacizumab VEGF
- Cetuximab: EFGR
- Daclizumab: IL-2R (CD-25)
- Donesumab: RANK ligand
- Eculizumab: C5 complement component
- Efalizumab: CD 11a chain LFA
- Epratuzumab: CD 22
- Gemtuzumab: CD 33
Topic 2: Adverse Reactions of Thalidomide
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Skin rashes
Topic 3: Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia:
In warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia erythrocytes bind IgG with or without complement. The IgG is specific against Rh antigens. Coating of the erythrocytes with IgG and complement leads to decreased erythrocyte survival as these cells are phagocytised by macrophages in the spleen and liver.
Topic 4: Intrinsic factor (IF) secreted by stomach
Vitamin B 12 deficiency is an important cause of Megaloblastosis and develops in the vast majority of cases as a result of impaired vitamin B12 absorption. Dietary vitamin B12 is bound to intrinsic factor (IF) secreted by the stomach and vitamin B12 bound to IF is absorbed by ileal mucosa.
Photosensitizing agents are
Topic 6: Sturge-Weber Syndrome and cutaneous capillary angioma
- This congenital syndrome is caused by a unilateral cutaneous capillary angioma involving the upper face and leading to leptomeningeal angiomatosis.
- Patients may have focal or generalized seizures secondary to the leptomeningeal angiomatosis.
- Contralateral hemisparesis and hemisensory disturbance may be present.
Topic 7: Hairy Cell Leukemia and Monocycte associated antigen CD11
- Hairy Cell Leukemia is a leukemia of special consideration. It is Present predominantly in the order age group >40 years with the special feature of Massive splenomegaly and Lymphadenopathy.
- There is Pancytopenia with Recurrent infections. There is Presence of tartrate resistant acidic phosphatase ‘TRAP’ in nucleoplastic B cells .
- Hairy cells express the pan B cell markers CD19 and CD20 and monocycte associated antigen CD11
Topic 8: Beta 2-microglobulin and Myeloma
- It is a Protein produced by B-cells; high concentrations in the blood are indicative of multiple myeloma.
- Beta-2-Microglobulin is found in the serum of normal individuals and in the urine in elevated amounts in patients with Wilson disease, cadmium poisoning, and other conditions leading to renal tubular dysfunction .
Topic 9: Angelmans Syndrome and Chromosome 15
Chromosome 15 is involved in Following diseases :
- Angelman syndrome
- Prader willi syndrome
- Tay Sachs disease.
- Xeroderma pigmentosum
- Marfans syndrome
Topic 10: Dysgerminoma is which Type of Ovarian Cancer
Non-Epithelial Tumours of Ovary are:
- Yolk-sac tumor
Topic 11: Herpes simplex virus : is a double-stranded, DNA-containing enveloped virus
Herpes simplex virus is a double-stranded, DNA-containing enveloped virus that causes a number of problems involving the skin, eye, oral mucosa, CNS, and genital tract. There are two types of herpes simplex virus, HSV-I and HSV-2. HSV-1 may cause genital disease but more commonly causes nongenital infections of eh mouth, lips, eye, and CNS. HSV-2 is responsible for genital infections and neonatal infections and may cause oral lesions.
Topic 12: Nifedipine as Tocoltytic Agent
Randomized Trials have demonstrated that Nifedipine is a better tocolytic agent than Ritodrine and Terbutaline. Headaches are the main maternal side effect but overall the drug is well tolerated and has no apparent fetal effects.
Topic 13: GnRH regulates the secretion of both FSH and LH
GnRH regulates the secretion of both FSH and LH. A pulsatile input of GnRH to the gonadotrophs is required to prevent downregulation of its receptors. LH stimulates Leydig cell testosterone Sertoli cells possess FSH receptors, and inhibin is the normal feedback loop for FSH.
Topic 14: Causes of Secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon:
Organic causes giving rise to Secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon :
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Cervical rib.
- Collagen diseases: Scleroderma, systemic lupus, systemic sclerosis
Topic 15: Acute Lymphangitis is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes
Both lymphatics and lymph nodes have a prediction for Streptococcus pyogenes. Acute inflammation of the lympahtics occur when the infection is not contained at the site of infection, but spreads to the draining lymph nodes of the area. Acute Lymphangitis is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.
Topic 16: Disorders of Phagocytosis
Disorders of Phagocytosis include
- Actin binding protein deficiency.
- Celiac Higashi syndrome
- Hyper IgE syndrome
- Job’s syndrome
- Lazy leukocyte deficiency
- Leukocyte G6PD deficiency
- Tuftin deficiency
Topic 17: Thromboangitis Obliterans And Risk Factors
Thromboangitis Obliterans( Buerger’s Disease):
Males are mostly affected and Tobacco smoking is a definite discriminating factor. Mostly affects lower limbs .The cardiac and visceral arteries are rarely affected. A disease of low economic class, with bad lower limb hygiene.
Topic 18: Examples of Compliment dependent inflammation
Compliment dependent inflammation (C3a, C5a) is seen in:
- Bullous pemphigus
- Good Pasteur syndrome
- Pemphigus vulgaris
- Rheumatic fever
Topic 19: Touton giant cells are seen in ………………
Touton giant cells are seen in Xanthomas, Fat necrosis, Xanthogranulomatous inflammation and Dermatofibroma. They are formed by fusion of epithelioid cells and contain a ring of nuclei surrounded by foamy cytoplasm.
Topic 20: Mutation in PAX6 causes ……………….
- Mutation in PAX6 causes Aniridia ( Congenital absence of the Iris).
- Translocations involving PAX8 are seen in Thyroid cancers.
- Translocations involving PAX5 are seen in subsets of
- Translocations involving PAX3 and PAX7 are seen in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcomas.
- PAX2 mutations cause the “Renal Coloboma” Syndrome (developmental defects of the kidney , eyes, ears, and brain.)
Topic 21: Peromyscus maniculatus is implicated in which Disease …….
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) : The disease is caused by a new hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, maintained in nature by the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. The disease is a severe, systemic illness characterized by fever, myalgia, cough, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by abrupt onset of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and shock, often leading to death.
Topic 22: Myonecrosis is predominantly caused by Clostridium perfringens
- Clostridium perfringens Causes Gas gangrene (myonecrosis) and food poisoning.
- Characteristics of Clostridium perfringens are anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod.
- Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens is by gram-stained smear plus anaerobic culture.
Topic 23: Ligamentum venosum is the remnant of Ductus venosus
Ligamentum venosum: It is the remanant of Ductus venosus of fetal life. It is connected above to left hepatic vein near its entry into inferior vena cava and below to the left branch of portal vein, thus forming a by-pass for blood during fetal life.
Boundaries of Femoral Triangle: It is bounded by
- Laterally: medial border of Sartorius.
- Medially: medial border of adductor longus
- Base: inguinal ligament
- Apex: directed downwards and is formed by meeting of medial and lateral boundaries.
Topic 25: Facial Nerve Nucleus lies in….. Pons
The Cranial nerve Nuclei in pons:
- Sixth nerve nucleus
- Seventh nerve nucleus
- Vestibular and cochlear nuclei
Salivatory, Lacrimatory nuclei and Nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal nerve.
Topic 26: Melanosome -related antigens are seen in which……… Skin Tumor
- In Melanoma , Immunohistochemical demonstration shows S100 protein or melanosome-related antigens (eg, HMB45) in the melanocytes.
- The tumor cells infiltrate into the dermis and extend upward into the upper part of the epidermis, frequently causing ulceration.
- Lymphatic involvement by the tumor may result in the formation of satellite lesions along the lymphatics.
Topic 27: Rash on Extensor aspect of Forearm and Onycholysis is seen in … Psoroasis
- In Psoriasis Scaly rash on Extensors is common and Nail involvement is common and may show:
- Small regularly placed thimble pitting
- Nail plate thickening & tunneling
- Accumulation of subungal friable debris / subungal hyperkeratosis.
- Onycholysis – separation of nail plate from nail bed.
- It is an enzyme used for the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas.
- These tumors require exogenous asparagine for growth.
- L-asparaginase acts by depleting this amino acid in the serum.
- It is administered by i.v. route and may cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, acute pancreatitis and cortical vein thrombosis.
Topic 29: Fasidotrilat is a ……… Vasopeptidase inhibitor
Vasopeptidase inhibitors constitute a new class of cardiovascular drugs that inhibit two metalloprotease enzymes, NEP 24.11 and ACE. They increase the levels of natriuretic peptides and decrease the formation of ANG II. As a result, they enhance vasodilation, reduce vasoconstriction, and increase sodium excretion, in turn reducing peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. Recently developed vasopeptidase inhibitors include omapatrilat, sampatrilat, and fasidotrilat.
Topic 30: VLDL is synthesized in …………Liver
- VLDL is synthesized in liver that contains high triglyceride, ChE, cholesterol, phospholipids and Apo B- 100. (VLDL particles resemble Chylomicrons in composition except that VLDL contains Apo B- 100 instead of Apo B-48).
- VLDL particles are secreted in the plasma and as with Chylomicron, Apo E and Apo C are transferred from HDL to VLDL. Now VLDL contains Apo B-100, Apo E and Apo C.
Topic 31: Genetic Hemochromatosis is linked to the HLA-A locus on …………..Chromosome 6p.
Hemochromatosis is a disorder of iron storage. It results in deposition of excessive amounts of iron in parenchymal cells with eventual tissue damage and impaired function of organs, especially the liver, pancreas, heart, joints, and pituitary. Hereditary or genetic Hemochromatosis is most often caused by inheritance of a mutant HFE gene, which is tightly linked to the HLA-A locus on chromosome 6p.
Topic 32: Jod Basedow Disease Is synonymous with iodine induced hyperthyroidism
It is synonymous with iodine induced hyperthyroidism and may occur in patients with multinodular Goitre after intake of large amount of iodine in the diet or In the form of radiographic contrast material.
This type of thyrotoxicosis can be precipitated by excess iodine intake (Jodbasedow effect) and appears to occur particularly frequently in autonomous thyroid tissue, which functions independently of TSH stimulation.
Prolactinomas cause Endocrine effects such as
- Galactorrhea Irregular menses
Topic 34: In LEOPARD Syndrome O stands for ………………
LEOPARD (lentigines; ECG abnormalities,ocular hypertelorism; pulmonary stenosis and subaortic valvular stenosis; abnormal genitalia (cryptorchidism, hypospadias); retardation of growth; and deafness (sensorineural) syndromes, lentigines do serve as a clue to systemic disease.
Topic 35: Laborartory Findings in HUS is Burr cells and Coomb’s test negative
Laborartory Findings in HUS:
- Anemia : Microangiopathic hemolytic, Red blood cell fragmentation on peripheral smear, Helmet cells / Burr cells
- WBC counts rise
- LDH levels are elevated
- Coomb’s test is negative
Topic 36: Umblicus is Supplied by T10 segment of spinal cord
- It marks the watershed of body. The lymph and venous blood do not cross the umbilical plane
- It is Supplied by T10 segment of spinal cord
- It is a Site of porto-caval anastomosis.
Topic 37: Short gastric vessels lie in the Gastrosplenic ligament
The Contents of Gastrosplenic ligament are
- Left gastroepiploic vessels
- Short gastric vessels
- Sympathetic nerves
Topic 38: CSF Rhinorrhea is a Contraindication to Nasotracheal intubation
Contraindications to Nasotracheal intubation are
- Coagulopathy / Bleeding disorder
- CSF Rhinorrhea.
- Nasal trauma & abnormalities like polyp, abscess, and foreign body.
- Old or new base of skull (eg cribiform plate) fracture
- Previous nasal surgery is relative contraindication
- Severe mid facial trauma . There is risk of intracranial tube placement.
Topic 39: Cysteine is the hardest stone to break by ESWL.
“Cysteine and Brushite (calcium phosphate hydrate) are the most difficult stones to break”. Hardness of brushite (calcium phosphate hydrate) stones to break by shock wave lithotripsy is surpassed only by cysteine stones
Topic 40: Ketamine is a noncompetitive inhibitor at the NMDA receptor
Ketamine is a noncompetitive inhibitor at the NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate ) receptor (a subtype of glutamate receptor). Its NMDA receptor antagonist action may mediate the general anesthetic & some analgesic actions.
Topic 41: Important Drugs and Porphyrias
Porphyrias are precipitated by drugs such as
- Estrogenic hormones
- Ethyl alcohol
- Exogenous steroids
- Hexachlorbenzene (HCB)
Topic 42: In a 33 Year old with Donovanosis Best Response is seen with Which Drug- Docycycline
- Donovanosis is Caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
- It is diagnosed by microscopy by demonstrating Donovan bodies or safety pin appearance within large mononuclear cells in smear or biopsy sample.
- Best Response is seen with Doxycycline
Topic 43: Drugs inducing Hepatitis are:
Drug induced hepatitis is a result of Following Drugs:
- Erythromycin estolate
- Amoxicillin -clavulanic acid
Topic 44: Multiple Myeloma Treatment Combination Lenalidomide+ Dexamethasone +Bortezomib.
Immunomodulatory derivatives of thalidomide are called IMiDs. One of these is Lenalidomide, which is approved as a first line therapy for multiple myeloma with dexamethasone and bortezomib.
Topic 45: Common fungus causing Meningitis : Cryptococcus neoformans
Meningitis is the most common clinical manifestation of infection with the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. The majority of patients are immune compromised (i.e. they are receiving corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy or are infected with HIV. The diagnosis is confirmed by examination of the CSF.
Topic 46: Fifth disease is caused by Parvovirus B19
Parvovirus B19 is the agent responsible for Erythema infectiousum also known as Fifth disease. This most commonly affects children but it can also occur in adults. The disease is characterized by a “slapped – cheek” Appearance.
Topic 47: Bumetanide inhibits the Na +K+ CI Transporter
There are three main loop diuretics (Furosemide, Bumetanide and Ethacrynic acid) . They are potent diuretics. They inhibit the Na +K+ CI Transporter along the loop of Henle.