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Esophageal Carcinoma is cancer and its a malignant tumor of the esophagus, the tube that connects the throat with the stomach. Smoking and poorly controlled acid reflux are significant risk factors for esophageal cancer.
- Dental Caries
- Previous Gastric Surgery
- Chronic Ingestion Of Hot Foods
- Beverages Zinc
- Vitamin Deficiencies
- Poor Oral Hygiene
Other Predisposing Factors:
A number of esophageal lesions are premalignant, associated with an increased incidence of late carcinoma:
- Caustic Burns
- Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
- Esophageal Diverticula
- Reflux Esophagitis
- Hiatal Hernia
- Barrett’s (columnar Epithelial-lined) Esophagus
- Irradiation Esophagitis
- Ectopic Gastric Mucosa
Esophageal Adenocarcinoma is known for its aggressive histopathological behavior, rapidly infiltrating locally, involving adjacent lymph nodes, and disseminating widely by hematogenous spread. The Histological Lack of the serosal layer tends to favor local tumor extension.
Here the metaplastic replacement of normal esophageal squamous mucosa by columnar
Clinical presentation may be varied and includes:
- Dysphasia (MC symptom )
- Weight loss, weakness, anemia
- Constant pain indicates extramural invasion
- Coughing on swallowing indicates Cancerous tracheoesophageal fistula
- Hoarseness: Due to RLN palsy is a sign of advanced and incurable diseases
Diagnosis is by:
- Esophagoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice. Cellular material should be obtained simultaneously.
- The lesion in upper 2 / 3rd is an indication of a bronchoscope, as the lesion may have invaded the tracheobronchial tree.
- Endoscopic ultrasound: best method for preoperative staging of the primary lesion and local Regional Lymph node.
Fig 1: Barrets Esophagus
Fig 2: Adenocarcinoma Esophagus
Fig 3: CT Scan Cancer Esophagus
Fig 4: CT Scan Cancer Esophagus
- Usually occurs in elderly males with Age : > 50 years
- Two types of cancers occur: Squamous cell Ca ( MC) and Adeno Carcinoma
- Squamous cell Cancer mostly arise in middle one-third
- Adeno Carcinoma mostly arises in distal 1 / 3rd.
- Overall MC site of Cancer of Oesophagus: distal 1 / 3rd