Cervical Cancer Important Topic For NEET PG & FMGE
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the cervix. The cervix is a hollow cylinder that connects the bottom of a woman’s uterus to her vagina. Cervical cancer affects the entrance to the uterus. It most commonly occurs in women over the age of 30.
Human Papilloma Virus
Human Papilloma Virus is one of the most studied viruses these days. Cervical cancer cases are a topic of research and many questions are asked in NEET PG and MCh about Cervical Cancer.
Beyond doubt, It is now established that HPV plays a major role in cervical carcinogenesis. HPV has many Genotypes. Cervical Cancer causes a lot of Morbidity and Mortality in Females throughout the World.
The Topic is an Examiners Favorite as well
It is almost always repeated in NEET PG/ FMGE / NEET MCh and likely in Proposed NEXT Examinations.
All Aspirants should be aware of the Cervical Cancer and the role of HPV including Microbiological Aspects about HPV.
A Histopathologist or Any Medical student should remember that:
1) Most commonly associated with squamous cell carcinoma cervix is HPV 16
2) Most common genotype associated with adenocarcinoma of cervix is HPV 18
3) Overall MC genotype associated with invasive carcinoma, CIN II and CIN III is HPV 16
Predisposing factors for Cervical Cancer are :
- Early age of coitus
- Multiple sex partners
- Poor hygiene
- Poor socioeconomic status
- Smoking, alcohol, drug abuse
- Associated STDS
The cytological changes caused by HPV are collectively called as Koilocytosis. In most of the females, HPV infection clears in 9-15 months, only in a small minority it persists. Malignant transformation requires expression of E6 and E7 HPV oncoproteins.
Low-risk type HPV
- Cause genital warts and subclinical HPV infection
- Subtype HPV 6,11
High-risk type HPV
- Cause high-grade CIN which progress to invasive cancer
- Type 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 58
Remember the High Yield Facts About Cervical Cancer
Staging of Cervical Cancers
|The staging of cervical carcinoma is clinical and generally completed with a pelvic examination under anesthesia with cystoscopy and proctoscopy. Chest x-rays, intravenous pyelograms, and computed tomography are generally required, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to assess extra cervical extension.
Stage 0: is carcinoma in situ,
Stage I: is disease confined to the cervix,
Stage II: disease invades beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall or lower third of the vagina,
Stage III: disease extends to the pelvic wall or lower third of the vagina or causes hydronephrosis,
Stage IV: is present when the tumor invades the mucosa of bladder or rectum or extends beyond the true pelvis.
HPV Vaccination: Recent Focus has been on the development of Vaccines for Cervical Cancer.
HPV Vaccines are in use now.
- Routine HPV vaccination is recommended for girls at 11-12 years of age but may be provided as early as 9 years and as late as 18 years
Trails have demonstrated both vaccines are highly effective in preventing CIN 2, 3 or adenocarcinoma in situ caused by HPV
This tends to be A High Yield Topic and we Expect you to go through the Topic in Great Depth. Our efforts are directed at providing you the Best matter. Latest Updates will produce better results on what examination it may be.
Online Programmes cater to Standard Text and questions are from these Texts. This Programme has been specially devised to cater to Latest Questions, All important Text Matter, and Contains Questions with the Best possible Explanations and Questions for Practice Also.
A student needs to be Best prepared for the Examinations and this effort of mine is a step in that direction.
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