NEET-PG Important Topic
Burns is a very important topic and frequently asked in NEET PG especially from Forensic Medicine. NEET PG Aspirant should be well versed in important topics.
Definition of Burns :
A burn is an injury which is caused by the application of heat or chemical substance to the external or internal surfaces of the body.
Degrees of Burns:
The Degree of Burns differs Dupuytren is credited with classification. He recognized six degrees of burns but they were merged into three groups by Wilson.
Epidermal (First and Second degree Dupuytren)
- Usually, a blister (vesicle or bulla) is formed which is covered by the white, avascular epidermis, bordered by red, hyperaemic skin.
- These burns are very painful.
Dermo – epidermal (Third and Fourth degree Dupuytren)
- Here Whole thickness of the skin is destroyed.
- Skin and subcutaneous tissue are affected.
- In Dermo-epidermal, pain and shock are greater than in first degrees burns (most painful).
Deep (Fifth and Sixth degree Dupuytren)
- In this, there is gross destruction not only of the skin and subcutaneous tissue but also of muscle and even bone.
- Nerve endings are also destroyed and as such, the burns are relatively painless.
Classification based The extent of the surface
The estimation of the surface area of the body involved is worked out by the ‘Rule nine’ by Wallace
- 9% for head and each upper limb
- 9% for the front of each lower limb.
- 9% for Back of each lower limb
- 9% for Front of chest
- 9% for the back of the chest
- 9% for the front of the abdomen
- 9% for the back of the abdomen i.e. 99% of the body.
- Remaining 1% for the external genitalia.
Main Causes of death in Burn Patients :
- Primary (neurogenic) shock due to pain.
- More than half of deaths from burns occur from secondary shock due to fluid loss from the surface.
- Sepsis: It is the late cause of death due to burn.
- Acute renal failure. ARF
- (Usually in closed places)
Difference between Ante-mortem and Post-mortem burns
|Trait||Antemortem burns||Post-mortem burns|
|1.||Line of redness||i)||Present||i)||Absent|
|2.||Blister||ii)||It contains serous fluid with proteins and chlorides. The base is inflamed||ii)||It contains air only. The base is dry hard and yellow|
|4.||Enzymes||iv)||Increase in enzyme reaction and SH group.||iv)||It does not show an increase in enzyme reaction.|
|5.||CO Hb||v)||More than 5%CO Hb||v)||Less|
We mean by Pugilistic attitude:
Also known as (boxing, fencing or defense attitude)
- Remember these names associated with the term. Alternate names ae asked in NEET PG Exams.
- Pugilistic attitude is due to heat stiffening.
- This stiffening is due to the coagulation of protein albumin of the muscles which causes contraction.
- Heat stiffening is due to exposure of the body to a temperature above 75°C.
- Pugilistic attitude is seen in those dying due to burns, and sudden immersion in boiling liquid.
- In heat stiffening, the body assumes a posture of generalized flexion.
These points are frequently asked in Forensic Medicine. WE wish that all NEET PG Aspirants remember important Topics asked in Forensic Medicine. To subscribe to NEET PG Packages.