High Yield Topics
Maculopapular Rashes in Children
- The eruption is dark red and punctiform.
- The rash tends to be most prominent on the neck and in the major skin folds.
- A distinctive feature is circumoral pallor as a result of the rash sparing the area around the mouth.
- As with measles, desquamation is seen but the hands and feet are involved.
- True scarlet fever is associated with inflammation of the tongue (white and red strawberry tongue).
- Scarlatina refers to the rash which may occur alone in milder streptococcal infection, and is often short lived.
Erythema infectiosum or fifth disease
- Infection caused by parvovirus B19
- is associated with a rash which develops in two stages.
- The cheeks appear red and flushed, giving rise to a ‘slapped cheek’ appearance. A maculopapular rash develops
- 1–2 weeks later, predominantly over the arms and legs which, as it fades, appears lace-like.
- Causes non immunehydrops is caused by parvo virus.
- The main cause is human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6).
- Roseola infantum is characterized by a widespread morbilliform (measles-like) rash, seen in its most florid form on the trunk.
- The lesions tend to be discrete.
- As the rash appears the fever, which is normally present over the previous 4 days, resolves and the child looks well (in contrast to measles, in which the child is febrile and unwell when the rash appears).
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