What is Coronavirus
Coronaviruses: Characteristics of Corona Virus are in enveloped virus with a helical nucleocapsid and one piece of single-stranded, positive polarity RNA. There is No polymerase in the virion.
Viruses: Viruses are a group of organisms with unique capabilities. There are different types of coronaviruses.
Need to understand Coronavirus
People throughout the world, Medical professionals, PG Aspirants and MBBS, MD Aspirants are in need of information about coronavirus. There is a need to differentiate the SARS Virus, Rhinovirus, and Coronavirus.
Features of Coronavirus:
Coronaviruses are a special group of single-stranded RNA Viruses that can affect humans. They affect birds, cattle as well as chicken.
They belong to the Family: Coronaviradea the genus is :
- Deltacoronavirus and Gammacoronavirus
They have got the viral property of Mutation and Mutant strains can cause considerable damage if not detected early. The best way to avoid viral exposure is to avoid travel and stay indoors as much as possible in order to avoid exposure to a viral transmission.
The rapid ability of the virus to spread and its mutation is considerable risk factors. Crowding, unsanitary and poor sanitation, Hospitals, Aggregation of People at Parties, Functions, Religious, Political gatherings can increase the risk of transmission.
Patients usually complain of Symptoms similar to Upper Respiratory Tract Infections.
- Sore throat
- Rhinorrhea (Running nose
- Pyrexia (Fever)
This makes it similar to Rhinovirus. The disease tends to be more dangerous in immunocompromised, old and debilitated patients though any age group can be affected. Disinfection and High temperature kill the virus. Regular use of Disinfectants reduces transmission rates.
Laboratory Diagnosis of Virus is the diagnosis primarily a clinical. An antibody-based and PCR-based test is available but not often done.
The spread of Coronavirus:
Lately, the Wuhan district in China has been identified as the source of Coronavirus. New cases have been reported from Australia, the USA, Canada, Nepal, Australia, and the transmission chain seems to have started.
Effective indoor stay and Restricted movement at places of infection seem to have an initial impact at reducing the risk of transmission. No Drugs or Vaccines to date have been found to be greatly effective in this disease.
Other RNA Enveloped viruses
- Causes Paralytic poliomyelitis and aseptic meningitis. Poliomyelitis has been eradicated in the western hemisphere and in many other countries. The causative agent is poliovirus which has three serotypes, 1, 2 & 3
- Most outbreaks of paralytic polio are due to type- 1 virus
- Man is the only known reservoir of infection
- Most infections are subclinical
- Poliovirus survives for a long time cold environment.
- Characteristics of Polia Virus is that it is has a naked nucleocapsid with single-stranded, positive polarity RNA.
- Genome RNA acts as mRNA and is translated into one large polypeptide, which is cleaved by a virus-encoded protease to form functional virus proteins. No virion polymerase. There are three serotypes.
- Laboratory Diagnosis of Polia Virus is the recovery of the virus from the spinal fluid that indicates infection of the central nervous system.
- Isolation of the virus from stools indicates infection but not necessarily disease.
- It can be found in the GI tract of asymptomatic carriers. The virus can be detected in cell culture by CPE and identified by neutralization with type-specific antiserum.
- Aseptic meningitis
- Characteristics of Coxsackie Virus are :
- Naked nucleocapsid with single-stranded, positive polarity RNA. No virion polymerase.
- Group A and B viruses are defined by their different pathogenicity in mice. There are multiple serotypes for each group.
- Laboratory Diagnosis of Coxsackie Virus is the virus can be detected by CPE in cell culture and identified by neutralization
- Causes Common cold.
- Characteristics of Rhino Virus are :
- Naked nucleocapsid viruses with single-stranded, positive polarity RNA. No virion polymerase.
- There are more than 100 serotypes, which explains why the common cold is so common.
- Rhinovirus is destroyed by stomach acid and there do not replicate in the GI tract, in contrast to other picornaviruses such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, which are resistant to stomach acid.
- Laboratory Diagnosis of Rhino Virus is laboratory tests are rarely used clinically. The virus can be recovered from nose or throat washing by growth in cell culture.
Norwalk Virus (Norovirus)
- Causes Gastroenteritis (watery diarrhea).
- Characteristics of Norwalk Virus (Norovirus) are a nonenveloped virus with icosahedral nucleocapsid and one piece of single-stranded, positive polarity RNA. No viri